Nivaan Clinic

difference between Scoliosis, Kyphosis, and Lordosis

Ever wondered what keeps you standing tall and flexible? It’s not just your willpower but the incredible design of your spine. Your spine is not just a support structure; it’s a complex marvel that allows you to stand tall, bend, and twist.

However, sometimes, these intricate structures can deviate from their ideal alignment, leading to various spinal curvature conditions. In this blog, we will explore each of these spinal curvatures, helping you understand the difference between scoliosis, kyphosis, and lordosis and providing valuable insights into their causes, symptoms, and potential treatments.

What is Scoliosis?

Scoliosis is a sideways curvature of the spine. Everyone has normal curves in the spine, but when looked at from behind, the spine appears straight. However, children and teens with scoliosis have an abnormal S-shaped or C-shaped spine curve. The curve can happen on either side of the spine and in different places in the spine.

What Causes Scoliosis?

  1. Neuromuscular Conditions: Conditions like cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, or spinal cord injuries can cause scoliosis due to muscle imbalances and weakness.
  2. Degenerative Changes: In older adults, age-related degeneration of the spine’s discs and joints can lead to scoliosis.
  3. Syndromes: Some genetic syndromes, such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, can be associated with scoliosis.
  4. Secondary to Other Conditions: Trauma, tumours, infections, or other underlying conditions affecting the spine curves can lead to secondary scoliosis as a result of structural damage.

Scoliosis Symptoms

  • Uneven shoulder height or alignment.
  • An asymmetrical waist or hips.
  • One shoulder blade appears more prominent than the other.
  • Back pain, which is more common in adults with scoliosis.
  • Limited mobility or discomfort due to the curvature.

What is Kyphosis?

Kyphosis is a spinal condition characterised by an excessive forward rounding of the upper back, leading to a noticeable hunching or humpback appearance. This curvature can affect people of all ages, from children to adults, and can vary in severity.

What is Cervical Kyphosis?

Cervical kyphosis specifically refers to an abnormal curvature of the spine in the neck region, also known as the cervical spine. While the neck typically has a gentle curve, cervical kyphosis leads to a more pronounced forward bending, potentially causing neck pain and other complications.

Types of Kyphosis

  • Postural Kyphosis: This is the most common type and often occurs during adolescence. It is typically associated with poor posture and can be corrected with lifestyle changes and exercises.
  • Scheuermann’s Kyphosis: This form of kyphosis develops during adolescence and is characterised by wedge-shaped vertebrae. It can lead to a more severe hunchback appearance and may require medical intervention.
  • Congenital Kyphosis: Congenital Kyphosis is present at birth and results from abnormal spine development in the womb.
  • Degenerative Kyphosis: Occurring in older adults, this type is linked to age-related changes in the spine curves, such as disc degeneration and fractures.

Causes of Kyphosis

  • Poor Posture: Slouching or maintaining an incorrect posture for extended periods can lead to postural kyphosis.
  • Vertebral Abnormalities: Congenital defects or conditions like Scheuermann’s disease can affect the shape and alignment of the vertebrae.
  • Age-Related Changes: Degenerative changes, including disc compression and fractures, can lead to kyphosis in older individuals.
  • Neuromuscular Conditions: Diseases like muscular dystrophy or conditions that weaken the muscles supporting the spine can result in kyphosis.

Kyphosis Symptoms

  • Visible humpback or rounding of the upper back.
  • Back pain or stiffness, especially in the affected region.
  • Reduced flexibility and limited range of motion.
  • Potential breathing difficulties in severe cases, particularly with cervical kyphosis.
  • Emotional distress due to changes in appearance.

What is Lordosis?

Lordosis is a spinal condition characterised by an excessive inward curvature of the spine in the lower back or neck region. This curvature causes the affected area to arch more than normal, leading to a swayback appearance.

What is Cervical Lordosis?

Cervical lordosis specifically refers to an abnormal inward curvature of the spine in the neck region, or the cervical spine. While a gentle curve in the neck is normal, cervical lordosis results in a more pronounced arch, which can cause neck pain and related complications.

Causes of Lordosis

Several factors can contribute to the development of lordosis, including:

  • Poor Posture: Sustained poor posture, such as slouching or sitting with an arched lower back, can lead to lordosis over time.
  • Obesity: Excess weight, particularly in the abdominal area, can cause the spine to curve excessively to compensate for the added weight.
  • Muscle Imbalances: Weakness or tightness in specific muscle groups, such as the hip flexors or abdominal muscles, can affect the spine’s alignment.
  • Medical Conditions: Certain medical conditions like spondylolisthesis, osteoporosis, and neuromuscular diseases can lead to lordosis.

Lordosis Symptoms

The signs and symptoms of lordosis can vary depending on its severity and underlying cause. Common symptoms include:

  • An exaggerated arch in the lower back or neck.
  • Muscular discomfort or pain in the affected area.
  • Limited mobility and flexibility.
  • Gait abnormalities, such as a waddling walk.
  • Possible nerve compression leading to radiating pain or numbness.

Can Loss Of Cervical Lordosis Cause Scoliosis?

The loss of cervical lordosis (an abnormal flattening or reversal of the natural inward curve in the neck) on its own is typically not a direct cause of scoliosis (abnormal sideways curvature of the spine). However, there can be some indirect relationships between these two spinal deformity conditions, depending on various factors and how they affect the overall spine.

For example, when cervical lordosis is lost, the head can shift forward, putting more stress on the neck and upper back muscles. This can lead to muscle imbalances and poor posture, which can contribute to the development of scoliosis.

It is important to note that not everyone who has cervical lordosis will develop scoliosis. However, there is a correlation between the two conditions.

How Spinal Curvatures are Diagnosed?

Spinal curvatures are typically diagnosed through a combination of the following methods:

Physical Examination: For assessing posture, spine, and range of motion to identify any visible curvatures or abnormalities.

X-rays: Imaging provides detailed spine pictures, measuring curvature severity.

MRI: Scans evaluate soft tissues, nerves, and underlying issues.

CT Scan: 3D images assess complex deformities or structural problems.

Bone Density Tests: Check for conditions like osteoporosis contributing to curvatures.

Neurological and Physical Assessments: Test muscle strength, function, and nerve health.

Treatment of Spinal Curvature

The treatment of spine curvature disorders, such as scoliosis, kyphosis, or lordosis, depends on factors like the type, severity, age, and overall health of the individual. Here’s an overview of the treatment options:

Non surgical treatment options for spinal curavtures

Lifestyle Changes

  • Postural Correction: For some mild cases of spinal curvature, especially postural kyphosis or lordosis, maintaining correct posture through exercises and awareness can be effective.
  • Exercise and Physical Therapy: Specific exercises and physical therapy can help strengthen muscles, improve flexibility, and enhance spinal stability, which can be beneficial for managing and preventing curvature progression.
  • Weight Management: Maintaining a healthy weight can reduce the strain on the spine and help prevent curvature progression.

Nonsurgical Treatments

  • Bracing: In cases of progressive scoliosis, especially in adolescents, bracing may be recommended to halt or slow the curvature’s progression.
  • Pain Management: Pain associated with spinal deformities can often be managed through medications, physical therapies, or other non-invasive methods.

Surgical Treatments

  • Spinal fusion: Spinal fusion involves fusing vertebrae to stabilise the spine, often used for severe scoliosis or complex deformities.
  • Osteotomy: Osteotomy may reshape sections of the spine to correct rigid kyphosis or lordosis.
  • Disc replacement: Disc replacement can be an alternative to fusion in some degenerative conditions.
  • Implants: Implants like rods, screws, or hooks support the spine during correction procedures.

Difference Between Scoliosis Kyphosis and Lordosis


Scoliosis is sideways curvature of the spine, often resembling an “S” or “C” shape when viewed from the back.

Kyphosis is an excessive forward rounding of the upper back.

Lordosis is the excessive inward curvature of the spine in the lower back or neck.



  • Uneven shoulder height or alignment
  • An asymmetrical waist or hips
  • One shoulder blade is more prominent
  • Back pain
  • Limited mobility


  • Rounded upper back (hunchback appearance)
  • Neck pain
  • Reduced neck mobility


  • Exaggerated arch in the lower back or neck
  • Muscle discomfort or pain
  • Limited mobility.



  • Idiopathic (unknown cause, common in adolescents)
  • Congenital (present at birth)
  • Neuromuscular conditions
  • Degenerative changes in adults


  • Poor posture
  • Congenital defects
  • Neuromuscular conditions
  • Age-related changes.


  • Poor posture
  • Obesity
  • Pregnancy-related changes
  • Muscle imbalances
  • Certain medical conditions

Found In

Scoliosis is commonly found in adolescents but can occur at any age.

Kyphosis can affect individuals of all ages, including adolescents and adults.

Lordosis can occur in individuals of all ages, from children to adults.

What is the Difference Between Spondylosis and Kyphosis?


Spondylosis is a broad term that refers to age-related degenerative changes in the spine, including degeneration of the intervertebral discs and the formation of bone spurs (osteophytes).

Kyphosis is a spinal condition characterised by an excessive forward rounding or curvature of the upper back, leading to a hunched or humpback appearance.

Primary Focus

In Spondylosis, the primary focus is on degeneration of spinal structures, particularly intervertebral discs and joints.

In Kyphosis, the primary focus is on the abnormal curvature of the spine, specifically in the upper back.


The natural ageing process, wear and tear, injury, repetitive motion, and poor posture are some of the main causes of Spondylosis.

Poor posture, congenital factors, neuromuscular conditions, and age-related changes can cause Kyphosis.


Spondylosis – Pain, stiffness, reduced flexibility, nerve compression (radiating pain, numbness, weakness).

Kyphosis – Rounded upper back (hunchback appearance), neck pain, reduced neck mobility, potential breathing difficulties (severe cases).


Spondylosis – Affects various regions of the spine, including cervical, thoracic, and lumbar.

Kyphosis – Specifically involves excessive forward curvature of the thoracic spine (upper back).

What is the Difference Between Spondylitis and Scoliosis?


Spondylitis is an inflammatory condition that primarily affects the spinal joints, specifically the vertebrae.

Scoliosis is a structural deformity characterised by an abnormal sideways curvature of the spine.

Primary Focus

Spondylitis – Inflammation of the vertebrae, intervertebral discs, and surrounding tissues.

Scoliosis – Abnormal curvature of the spine, specifically sideways (lateral) deviation.


Spondylitis – Autoimmune response, infections (e.g., ankylosing spondylitis, reactive spondylitis), or wear and tear.

Scoliosis – Various causes, including idiopathic (unknown), congenital, neuromuscular conditions, and degenerative changes.


Spondylitis – Back pain, stiffness, reduced mobility, fatigue, and potential systemic symptoms (fever, weight loss in some types).

Scoliosis – Uneven shoulder height or alignment, asymmetrical waist or hips, one prominent shoulder blade, back pain, and limited mobility.


Spondylitis – Affects the vertebral column, particularly the spine’s vertebrae and discs.

Scoliosis – Sideways curvature typically found in the thoracic (upper back) or lumbar spine (lower back) regions.


Spondylitis – Treatment aims to manage inflammation, relieve symptoms, and prevent complications, often involving medications, physical therapy, and lifestyle adjustments.

Scoliosis – Treatment depends on the severity and cause, including observation, bracing, physical therapy, and surgery for severe cases.


Spondylitis – Inflammatory condition that primarily affects the spine and can lead to fusion of vertebrae.

Scoliosis – Structural spinal deformity characterised by a lateral (sideways) curve.

Is Extra Thoracic Vertebrae Common, and can it Cause Scoliosis Or Kyphosis?

Extra thoracic vertebrae, also known as transitional vertebrae or lumbarized thoracic vertebrae, are relatively uncommon but not rare. While they don’t directly cause scoliosis or kyphosis, they can contribute to spinal deformity cases like scoliosis or kyphosis.

What is a good treatment or therapy?

Treatment depends on the specific condition’s impact on the spine and nerves. Consultation with a healthcare professional or orthopaedic specialist is essential to determine appropriate treatment, which may include monitoring, physical therapy, or surgery in severe cases.

What are the Best Exercises for Kyphosis and Lordosis?

best exercise for  Kyphosis and Lordosis
  • Chest stretch: Stand or kneel facing a doorway, with your hands on the doorframe at shoulder height. Lean forward until you feel a stretch in your chest. Hold for 15-30 seconds.
  • Row: Sit on a rowing machine or use a resistance band to mimic the rowing motion. Focus on squeezing your shoulder blades together at the end of each row.
  • Superman: Lie on your stomach with your arms and legs extended. Raise your arms and legs off the ground and hold for 5-10 seconds. Repeat 10-15 times.
  • Bird dog: Start on your hands and knees, with your back flat. Extend your right arm and left leg out straight. Hold for 5-10 seconds, then repeat on the other side. Do 10-15 repetitions on each side.
  • Bridge: Lie on your back with your knees bent and your feet flat on the ground. Raise your hips off the ground until your body forms a straight line from your shoulders to your knees. Hold for 5-10 seconds, then lower back down. Repeat 10-15 times.